Identity and Online Advocacy

Lack of LGTBQ+ Recognition in Domestic Online Domestic Violence Advocacy


Victims of domestic violence are not just found in cis heterosexual relationships, it is an issue that society needs to address as it is a problem for many people in a variety of queer and straight relationships. Social platform forms such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram is a foundation for victims to share stories and be a part of community that can help them. However, in this paper I discuss the lack of LGTBQ+ experiences found in big online advocacies such as White Ribbon Australia, and how it is difficult for queer people to seek help as they feel as though society disregards that seriousness of their own domestic violence experiences.

White Ribbon Australia was founded in 1991, however, originally the foundation was started due to the mass shooting in Ecole Polytechnique de I’Universite de Montreal. December 6th, 1989 a male student walked into a classroom shooting 14 women and injuring 10 “while shouting anti-feminist slogans” (White Ribbon Australia, 2021). This sparked nationwide advocacy for violence against women and the “forefront of our collective consciousness” (White Ribbon Australia, 2021). Bob Pease, was the reason White Ribbon was bought to Australia in 1992. As a member of the Men Against Sexual Assault (MASA), he was attending several National Organizations in Chicago and came across White Ribbon Campaigns and was inspired to launch it in every state where MASA is active. White Ribbon Australia’s vision is to “be a part of a global social movement working to eliminate gendered violence” (White Ribbon Australia, 2021) This paper discusses the limitations of gender inclusion in the online advocacy White Ribbon Australia, as their primary source of information regards victims that are of gender and sexuality normative, which overall limits the community and variety of individuals that seek help from these online advocacies. Since the beginning of domestic establishment, domestic violence has been an increasing problem in society. However, the increase of advocacy has yet to determine an analytical understanding of domestic violence that society can use to direct our efforts for social change. Critically analyzing the lack of diverse victim experiences in Australian online advocacies such as White Ribbon Australia and normalization of domestic violence within a group of victims such as heterosexual relationships. Centering gender in the research of domestic violence without acknowledging the significant outcomes of other identities and social locations. 

For many, social media and online spaces are a form of connection and education, as victims of domestic violence rely on the support of family, friends, authority figures, and communities to protect themselves from violent partners. Even though there are many helpful social media communication platforms such as the White Ribbon Australia Facebook page with 179, 358 followers, or Australian Women Against violence (AWAVA) twitter organization that has 7,244 followers, they often lack the sources to support experiences and stories of other gender identities and rely on the “normative ideas about gender and sexuality” ( Fagan, 2016; Patterson, 2016; Renarde, 2016) As a result this leads to overlooking the severity of violence within the LGTBQ+ relationships, which “abusers’ knowledge of these additional barriers facilitates other kinds of physical and emotional violence that make it more difficult for victims and survivors to become safe (Bornstein et al. 2006) Social media advocacy organizations “are an important source of support for many victims and survivors, but they are also sites where normative discourses of gender and sexuality flourish.” (Shelton, 2017) Organizations such as White Ribbon (1991) that was originally started in 1991 in Canada in response to domestic violence against women and children. The white ribbon symbolizing “the idea of men giving up their arms”, and men’s opposition to violence against women” (White Ribbon Australia, 2021) Their website and social media pages such as Instagram (@whiteribbonaust 21.1 k followers) and their Twitter (@WhiteribbonAust with 22.5K followers) continues to be amazing platforms that reach millions of people worldwide, it continues to highlight gender in their “analyses of sexual and domestic violence without recognizing the important outcomes of other identities and social locations” (Shelton, 2017) The lack of recognition of other victims and survivors that identify differently from heterosexual and cisgender roles, are often foreseen and do not get the same response as those that fit the one social group that social media advocacies portrays domestic violence to be in. “The assumptions advocates make about individuals involved in violent relationships both marginalize victim men and trans, non-binary and gender non-conforming victims and lead to heteronormative advocacy efforts. (Patterson, 2016). Further discussing the community and individuals that these reproduced online advocacy attract, and how they interact with each other. As a political outlook, the Queer community seeks to disclose the normative constraints of gender identity. Further, platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter that are run by White Ribbon Australia need to “deconstruct existing assumptions and practices among advocates, recognizing places where normative beliefs about gender and sexuality limit the effectiveness of advocacy efforts across difference, and making room for bodies that have been previously marginalized, regulated or erased.” (Shelton, 2017). 

Domestic violence is the controlling “pattern of one person trying to dominate or control another person.” (Domestic Violence Organization, 2021) In common forms this is done by abusive ways, physical, sexual or emotional. The abuser is often depicted as a stronger or more dominate being, which falls into a gender construction of a male figure. With this “normative constructions of gender and sexuality affect tactics of abuse such as abusers can exploit normative ideas to reinforce their power and control over their partners” (Allen & Leventhal, 1999) for example males can use the normative of stronger, angry and over powering to exploit a passive and caring women. This can also lead to the lack of information being provided by informative websites and social media platforms, victims could feel a separation or distance from support. Years of continually identifying gender and sexuality into a confine category has “shaped social perceptions of domestic violence and our shared reactions to it.” (Shelton, 2017) consequently society have portrayed women to be the “primary, if not only, victims of domestic violence and men as the primary, if not one, perpetrators of violence.” (Shelton, 2017). For example, on White Ribbons Instagram page they post on average three to two times a week with a total of 872 posts. Within those post, there are only three discussing about the LGTBQ+ community, the rests are quotes, stories and information about women who have experienced domestic violence in a cis relationship.  

The research that has been provided by most organizations stem from the focus on the abuse of male power in the context of a heterosexual relationship. Another example is the AWAVA twitter account that has created a platform for different women to connect and commutate their stories to help others, there is a small development in the usage of wording such as “young women and non-binary people” (AWAVA, 2021) the lack of information and support groups for nonbinary, gender nonconforming and transgender victims can be fatal as these victims can often feel alone or not heard.  Author of Feminist Advocacy (2013), Andrea J. Nichols discuss the research of “feminist identities, ideologies, and practices as components of organizations that both resist and reproduce various facets of gender” (Nichols. A, 2013) generally highlights a distinct “feminist advocacy in anti- domestic violence organizations” (Nichols. A, 2013) this lead to attitudes that violence within a lesbian relationship with two women can be seen as less serious, because the perpetrator is not a male. 

A community for most is a group of people that share characteristics of experiences in common. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter as design to “give people the power to build community and bring the world closer together” (Forbush, 2018) Facebook in particular have private groups for strangers to join and share information with others that might be experiencing the same thing. For many domestic victims Facebook is a place of security and a safe place to get help or help others. This forms the reflection of the affordances online spaces and safe advocacies provide for people in these situations. Many don’t have support groups for people in the LGBTQ+ community, lacking inspiring stories from others that have been through those situations, to support victims to speak up. Even though “perpetrators of violence have developed methods of abuse that enable them to use this sense of community to isolate victims from advocacy resources and services and to increase their influence over the victims’ actions” (Shelton. S, 2017) Even if victims tried to escape and find the support they would struggle to feel included as many online advocacies online and on social platforms such as Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook often choose the narrative of supporting cisgender women and child in heterosexual relationships. So many people stay quiet purely out of fear and not wanting to feel judged and “so many queer victims/ survivors fear that talking about violation “turn people queer”, so many queer victims/survivors fear that talking about violence in the queer community with being used to justify anti- queer beliefs and practices, such as the belief that queer people are mentally ill or need to heal” (Clare, 2015; Lebarbera, 2016) The fear of society using their domestic violence against them for homophobic comments, and the unknowing that if they were to call reinforcements that they aren’t transphobic or homophobic as well, resulting in police being unfair or beating the abuser purely because they are within the LGBTQ+ community, this can be seen within racial cases as well.

Online advocacy pages such as White Ribbon Australia Facebook group, are a very helpful and safe place for many to come to and feel like they have been heard or confirmed. Stating that their mission is to decrease domestic violence within every home. This demonstrates that there is an acknowledgment that domestic violence does affect everyone regardless of their identity. Declarations such as “white ribbon Australia understands the complexities that drive enforced gendered violence” (White Ribbon Australia, 2021) reinforce the support that society does not limit domestic violence to any one group. Statements like this provide light to the issue, an understanding that violence should not be a conversation of gender identity but of willingness to listen to others in need to help and safety. The online space should be a gateway for people to create amazing support groups for everyone, not just one group of people. 

In conclusion gender inclusion in online advocacies and social media platforms such as White Ribbon Australia, should be provided as victims that fall into the LGBTQ+ community often feel neglected or overseen because they are suffering in a queer relationship. Society should not be focusing purely on the narrative of cisgender women in a heterosexual relationship as victims, and male figures as abusers instead voicing victims of all identities, gender, and race as domestic violence does not discriminate and anyone can be victims of abuse.  


Allen, C., & Leventhal, B. (1999). History, culture, and identity: What makes GLBT battering different. In B. Leventhal & S. Lundy (Eds.), Same-sex domestic violence: Strategies for change (pp. 73–82). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bornstein, D. R., Fawcett, J., Sullivan, M., Senturia, K., & Shiu-Thornton, S. (2006). Understanding the experiences of lesbian, bisexual, and trans survivors of domestic violence: A qualitative study. Journal of Homosexuality, 51(1), 159–181. doi:10.1300/J082v51n01_08 

Clare, E. (2015). Exile and pride: Disability, queerness, and liberation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Eric M. Forbush (2018) Can Social Media Help Build Communities?: Working Paper (pp. 10-20).

Fagan, R. (2016). Fluctuations in voice: A genderqueer response to traumatic violence. In J. Patterson (Eds.), Queering sexual violence: Radical voices from within the anti-violence movement (pp. 17–22). Riverdale, NY: Riverdale Avenue Books.

Nichols, A. J. (2013). Feminist advocacy : Gendered organizations in community-based responses to domestic violence. ProQuest Ebook Central

Patterson, J. (2016). Introduction. In J. Patterson (Ed.), Queering sexual violence: Radical voices from within the anti-violence movement (pp. 5–16). Riverdale, NY: Riverdale Avenue Books. 

Samuel Z. Shelton (2018) A Queer Theorist’s Critique of Online Domestic Violence Advocacy: Critically Responding to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Web Site, Journal of Homosexuality, 65:10, 1275-1298, DOI: 10.1080/00918369.2017.1374060

Violence, P. and issue, U., 2021. Understanding the issue. [online] WhiteRibbon. <

44 thoughts on “Lack of LGTBQ+ Recognition in Domestic Online Domestic Violence Advocacy

  1. This is such an important topic which is not nearly touched upon enough! Even after the LGBTQ+ community is more so accepted (there is still some people who are not open-minded and way to traditional!!) there is still a sense in the community of their relationships needing to be on the down-low with many people frowning upon LGBTQ+ displays of public affection. It is so sad that in today’s day and age that the LGBTQ+ community are still restrained from every-day things, such as support groups (limited amount), especially when they are the ones constantly fighting their equal rights! Its definitely something that will never sit right with me until their community is completely free from any discrimination. I definitely agree that hashtags are a great way to spread awareness and increase a posts reach!I speak about hashtag activism and female empowerment in regards to the #notallmen movement! Feel free to give it a read so we can discuss the use of hashtags further!

  2. Hey Tamlyn

    This is such an important point of discussion you’ve brought up here. Discussion about LGBTQ+ relationships in general are still whispered about it. There is still that sense of bias, and discrimination that circulates surrounding this. Now to imagine society daring to discuss advocation about LGBTQ+ domestic violence. It is very upsetting to see how much they must endure to even gain any form of acceptance of their relationships, then to attempt to gain support of the abuse they undergo. There is not nearly enough recognition in the media, and they are largely at fault for the discrimination that occurs. The fear of the public’s reaction to such a topic is the reason why many people live in ignorance or fail to understand what truly goes on behind closed doors. Such a great point you’ve brought up, and I’m super interested to read into this further.

    – Michelle

  3. Hi Tamlyn,

    What an incredibly important topic to write on! It’s a very sad reality that the world is still so behind in many LGBTQ+ issues, despite the insistence that progress has been made. It’s a difficult thing to realise that such serious issues are barely taken seriously in the cis/heterosexual community, and with such a lack of specific LGBTQ+ resources and representation it is quite the same.

    Do you think that in going forward existing institutions like White Ribbon should do more to eliminate gendered language and images from their content to be more inclusive, or should this be a role for LGBTQ+ specific organisations? I only ask since Queer relationships and people have their own unique experiences which traditional services may be insufficient to assist with.

    Thank you for your paper, it is incredibly important and timely.

    All the best,

  4. Hi Tamlyn,
    This is a really great topic covering about how LGBTQ+ communities are suffering from domestic violence. It is sad and disappointing to see them live with constant judgments, especially in countries that do not support the LGBTQ+ community. Do you think in the future, social media can help people in the LGBTQ+ community to have more rights in countries that view it as a taboo?
    Thank you!

    feel free to read my paper regarding how social media can help individuals who are suffering from mental illness:

    1. Hi Alexandre,

      I think social media has already created a safe space for many queer members to find a voice and place where they can talk and connect to other people around the world that accept them more than their own country. Although I feel as though third world countries have a lot of developing to do and for many it is even had to get access to technology let a lone an organisation. We also have to look at cultural differences, for many country LGBTQ+ people can’t even get married or express themselves in ways they can in Australia and unfortunately I don’t think will change as religion and government organisations will always hold high power in other countries. Some countries don’t even have rights for women let alone LGBTQ+ communities, so I think yes social media can be a help tool and stepping stone, however, I still feel like it is no where near changing political rights for some countries.

      Thank you!

  5. Hi Tamlyn,

    There clearly needs to be more accurate representation and consultation of LGBTIQ+ people who are experiencing family violence. It is such a widespread issue in our community and LGBTIQ+ persons already face discrimination and consequently, often distrust police. I was wondering if you have read the journal article by O’Halloran, K (2015, October)? The summary of issues presented in this paper was in response to the Royal Commission into Family Violence and provides family violence statistics relating to the LGBTIQ+ community. The LGBTIQ+ community is over-represented in these statistics and this supports your argument for greater LGBTIQ+ representation in family violence advocacy groups. Thank you for writing about such an important topic.


    Manuel Ortiz

    O’Halloran, K. (2015, October). Family violence in an LGBTIQ context. DVRCV Advocate. Domestic Violence Resource Centre Victoria.

    1. Hi Manuel,

      No I am not aware of O’Halloran paper thank you so much for sharing this, as I want to expand my knowledge on this topic!

      Thank you

  6. Hi Tamlyn,

    I really like the topic you picked and the part you speak about the fact that there’s not a lot of awareness raised enough about the domestic of violence in the LGBTQ+ communities. In some part of the globe, this community is considered as taboo and many people are scared to speak about it freely so i wanted to know, what do you suggest for people who live in societies where this topic is considered as taboo, how can we better educate those people ?
    Social media is limited in terms of information in some places like China where everything is under control, so in this case, what can be done to shed more light on the LGBTQ+ communities ?

    1. Hi Shruti!

      Wow what a question, really gets the mind thinking! I know for a lot of countries social media is monitored and only allows certain content for viewers to see. Unfortunately queer relationships are banned in 72 countries around the world that is 36.92% of the world not being open to this community. So it does make it extremely hard to advocate about a problem that is basically unable to happen. I don’t think it will be changed anytime soon for those countries and it will take many generations to change religious and cultural beliefs, but I believe the movement of people is very influential, and creating social hash tags, education websites and changes in the political power might kick start something.

      Thank you

  7. This was an interesting (though very sad) topic. Unfortunately, the LGBTQ+ community just doesn’t get represented in a lot of areas. As an LGBTQ+ person who was a victim of domestic violence growing up (parental and sibling), I really did relate to this topic. There really weren’t many resources, and often I felt like I had no where to go. My experience of accessing resources, like Kids Helpline, was they were really unable to provide much in the way of support because they didn’t know what to do for LGBTQ+ people.

    I thought the point that many advocates primarily advocate for cis women in heteronormative relationships quite important. I am nonbinary, but I suppose you would say that I am masculine-passing, and so it can be more than a little isolating. I think another issue I’ve seen, not just specifically in domestic violence advocacy, is that portrayals of nonbinary people are usually feminine-passing or feminine-coded. I’ve looked from the outside of communities that term themselves as “for woman and nonbinary people”, but felt almost like an imposter – if that makes sense.

    I have also noticed in adverts I’ve received for domestic violence awareness that the content is often focused on white people, and monogamous heteronormative relationships, as well. Do you think there is an issue with the diversity of messaging for the POV of people of colour and non-monogamous people too?

    1. Hi Isaac,

      I’m so sorry to hear about your past and hope you understand how brave and important you are in society although you might not feel that way. I agree with the point when discussing non binary people it is always portrayals of feminine passing, you can see this in social media such as tik tok. This is also shown on White Ribbons recently tweet regarding a online community titled “women and non binary”, even though I do not have much experience in non binary expressions I’m aware of you concerns and think it is also something to be mindful of in POV’s and survival stories. Because when you are talking about LGBTQ+ communities you are not only talking about the LGBTQ and also the + part as well which includes non binary and non- monogamous victims.

  8. Hi Tamlyn!

    I really loved your paper and how pertinent this topic is today.
    I think that intersectionalities in this case a really interesting to look at.
    Too often we will look at LGBTQ+ communities being marginalized and oppressed. As you stated “Even if victims tried to escape and find the support they would struggle to feel included as many online advocacies online and on social platforms such as Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook often choose the narrative of supporting cisgender women and child in heterosexual relationships”
    I honestly found this so insightful and was able to reflect on the way that marginalized queer communities are not given a voice as much as cis, white women in the case of domestic abuse.
    According to Michelle VanNatta “Shelters may earn negative reputations in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer (LGBTQ) communities for excluding or mistreating women abused by women”(2005. p. 419).
    I think that social media truly makes marginalized communities have a voice and express the inequalities they have faced whilst being a huge support system. Whilst we see a lot of support for the LGBTQ+ communities, the topic of domestic violence is rarely talked about actively.

    I found your paper really informative, Tamlyn!

    Have a great day!



    VanNatta, M. (2005). Constructing the battered woman. Feminist Studies, 31(2), 416-443,452. doi:

  9. Hi Tamlyn,

    I really enjoyed your paper! I agree with your point on how social media platforms provide safe spaces for domestic abuse victims to seek support for abuse. I think the ability for users to be anonymous online is particularly beneficial because it allows people to openly express their experiences without feeling judged (Hoyer & van Straaten, 2021). Victims of domestic abuse who are still finding the courage to leave their abusive partner are also very likely to be paranoid that their partner will find out about them reaching out, so this is another reason why anonymity is important.

    Before I read your paper, I was unaware that online support websites like White Ribbon lack of recognition for LGTBQ+ survivors. This feel very backwards in modern society considering we are progressing towards equality and acceptance. You mentioned that a lack of recognition for these groups can have the negative effect of making them feel alone and unheard. Do you also think that the lack of support for LGTBQ+ victims has a subconscious effect on them and makes them feel like their experiences of domestic abuse are not valid? And as a result, do you think maybe LGTBQ+ victims could find it more difficult to recognise that they need help?

    I like how you have discussed how support communities can develop naturally online, like on Facebook. I think these self-developed communities are important to help LGTBQ+ domestic violence victims find support that is not offered by established advocacy groups like White Ribbon. However, it is disappointing that these groups do not have acceptance and recognition from official activist pages.

    Thank you for sharing your paper!

    Hoyer, B., & van Straaten, D. (2021). Anonymity and Self-Expression in Online Rating Systems-An Experimental Analysis (No. 70). Paderborn University, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.

    1. Hi Tamlyn and Rebekah,

      This paper and your comment was a really insightful read. I also was unaware that websites like White Ribbon lack recognition of LGBTQ+ survivors. It is also sad to know that the research community has historically overlooked the ways in which the LGBTQ communities experience domestic and sexual violence.

      However, it is positive that despite all the negative effects of social media, it is a good tool to develop communities to support LGBTQ+ domestic violence victims find support that is not found in established institutions.

      To provide some more information on your question Rebeka, I found from the Australian Institute of of Family Studies research that homophobia, transphobia and heterosexism affect the experience of, and responses to, intimate partner violence in LGBTIQ populations. Which is devastating to learn.

      Australian Institute of Family Studies, Department ofChildren, Families and Communities.

      1. Hi Rebeka and Megan!

        Thank you for your amazing feedback and opinions they were really good to read, and I was also in the same boat when I decided to research this topic.

        To answer you question Rebeka, yes I believe that the lack of support from online community and the dismissal of importance around LGBTQ+ domestic violence has defiantly subconsciously effected victims and made them think “well maybe I’m over reacting, because there is no information about it, or no one else is going through what I’m going through” which can lead to denial because what they are actually going through. As much as I can talk about this topic, I personally have not experience domestic violence but know a lot of my friends who have in LGBTQ+ relationships and cis relationships, but encourage you to continue researching and building your knowledge on this topic as it is so hidden and not talked about.

  10. Hey Tamlyn,

    This is such a well written paper about a very interesting issue! I love how you have explored domestic violence which is such a prominent issue, but explored how this can affect people in all types of relationships, and is not limited to stereotypes.

    What do you think the main reason is for their being less online support groups for members of the LGBTQ+ community who experience domestic violence?

    Great job! 🙂

    1. Hi Chloe,

      The main reason in my opinion, is because of the lack of education society has around this topic. For example even just the comments on this paper many people had no idea that this was even a big issue, because as a society we do not discuss this as a problem. The lack of education and voices being portrayed is the reason there is a lack of online support.

      Thank you

  11. Hi Tamlyn,

    What a great read. This paper really highlighted to me how little information i see regarding domestic violence that isn’t man on woman. I wonder if this is also due to the fact that we still don’t see as much representation of LGBTQ+ relationships on tv/film and in the media. This has definitely encouraged me to research more about this topic.
    I also enjoyed your point about domestic abuse often being highlighted as a feminist issue which is something I had not noticed or thought about previously.

    Thank you for a thought provoking read!

    1. Hi Kaily,

      You make such an interesting point about the lack of representation in tv/film and I encourage you to youtube short films about domestic violence in same sex relationships, as it can really open your eyes up to what it really can be like. I recommend watching this short film called SMOKE , its quiet confronting and emotional but worth the watch!

  12. Hello Tamlyn, firstly I would like to congratulate you for your well thought written paper. You gave a desperate approach about the problem where there is not much online queer movements to combat sexual abuse. Nevertheless, we see women nowadays having the ability to voice out any issues and problems, to the extent that it even became intimidating for men to ‘look’ at them at work, due to movements such as #MeeToo. It is unfortunate that LGBT + community seem like ‘nomads’ when they have to turn online for asking support. However, from the recent video of Ariana Grande’s song ‘POV’ ,, she used her platform to represent lgbtq and make them seem like any normal couple. Your aim was to make lgbtq have a ‘normal’ life, with normal issues and getting easy help online. What is your opinion about celebrities and influencers catering for lgbtq communities, instead of finding a direct help from online communities.


    1. Hi Mageswari,

      I believe the use of the word “normal” can be quiet triggering for many in the LGBTQ+ community as this can sometimes be used in a condescending manner, however I understand where you are coming from and believe that domestic violence should be looked in a non gendered way. To answer you question, the use of celebrities can be very powerful, as for most younger generations their voice can be very influential. So Ariana Grande using the representation of queer relationships in her music video demonstrates that she is a safe places for fans that are in that community to feel heard and acknowledge. So if celebrities talked about this issue more than I believe it would have a significant affect on the up and coming generation.

  13. Hi Tamlyn,
    Great paper! You touched on a topic worthy of much more attention than it was.
    The current community support and social welfare are undoubtedly insufficient. The lack of support for gender minority and non-heterosexual group in domestic violence can directly relate to the lack of awareness in societies. I’ve noticed that there has been an increasing discussion and criticism online about “PUA”(pick-up artist) in China in recent two years. People are talking about what is “PUA” and how to identify one in a relationship. However, the presumptions of domestic violence victims have always been a heterosexual female in those discussions. I wonder if you would agree that this can be a universal issue for many societies that domestic violence victims of other genders and sexualities are being ignored. As you mention, I also feel deep concern that the possibility that domestic violence involving LGBT people is used to propagate anti-gay beliefs and suppress the minor genders and non-heterosexuality. This strategy has been used accordingly by the National organisation for marriage, a homophobia organisation in the US. There’s a documentary about how they basically claim that homosexuality is a fundamental threat to society.

    And this situation also makes me the question: although so much attention has been brought to these injustices and plight on social media, does Internet public opinion really impact the decision-makers in societies? How could public opinion on social media help to improve the lack of recognisation of domestic victims from LGBT community?

    Kindest Regards,

    1. Hi Ningyu,

      I think the public opinion is so powerful you can see this on many platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter were comments about the same opinion or a comment that such largely liked can create movement or voice. Sometime this can be hurtful in the face of if someone of getting a lot of hate comments, however, if social media and public opinion started to education and speak about LGBTQ+ domestic violence I think it would have great positive impact on victims in these situations as they would feel acknowledge and heard.

  14. Hi Tamlyn,

    Your paper had a compelling argument that really caught my attention. Until I read this I too had not considered this side to domestic violence but it is so important that this is considered just as much. The lack of representation that the LGBTQ+ community get when it comes to domestic violence is astounding and I also recognized how the fact that they are already a marginalized group would make standing up to this even more difficult.

    After doing some research myself I found in an article by Peterman & Dixon, (2003) that domestic violence is the third largest health problem for gay men and that 50% of lesbians have been a victim of it in their relationships. That is a large number of people not being helped or recognized in nearly the same way.

    This paper was very well written and this big issue has been brought to my attention.

    Peterman, L., & Dixon, C. (2003). Domestic Violence Between Same-Sex Partners: Implications for Counseling. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 81(1), 40-47.

    1. Hi Jasmine,

      I’m really glad this paper is encouraging people to do their on research and to understand this growing and already prominent problem. I have read this statistic too in my findings and my jaw dropped and my heart broke because I was non aware about how many people in queer relationships were suffering in silence.
      These numbers are so high, and these victims are feeling pressured to stay with a toxic partner because in a unusual way they are the only person that understands what is going on. So as a society we need to encourage victims to break away from the unwanted violence and free themselves.

  15. Hey Tamlyn,

    This was a great paper and a really important topic to talk about.

    I also believe that there is a lack in support for males and the LGBTQ+ communities regarding domestic violence. Men are just generally not heard, and some of them suffer a lot of trauma and pain from their cis female partners. And I find that these big organisations often aren’t very supportive of the LGBTQ+ community and usually won’t help them due to old values and morals.

    I like the idea of using Facebook and other social media platforms to gain support and getting their voices back. It is a very double-edged blade with the chance that someone might use the domestic violence against them, but from what I have seen it has been more supportive. For example, I know someone who is a victim of DV and needed to get help but they were turned away from one of these big, “charity” type organisations because they are transgender. They then posted on their Facebook asking for help, and that community rallied behind them and helped them out.

    I’m hoping that as we progress, society will be more supportive of both men and the LGBTQ+ community in these matters


    1. Hi Lauren,

      I am very sorry to here this about your friend and hope they are safe and happy at the moment, this is exactly way I wanted to shine light on this topic. As even though these “organisations” claim to help “everyone” they are still very sexist and gendered based. This is also seen in DV shelter homes, as they offend do not take in trans or non binary people, and only limit themselves to the cis heterosexual women. This is why we need social platform to discuss this more openly to create change and to increase communities to stand behind everyone in these situations.

  16. Great paper Tamlyn.

    I have worked in women’s health communications and have to say now with a lot of hindsight wonder if the cis-gendered communications strategies are really working? Not only do the messaging of men’s violence on women miss the mark when it comes to the queer community it has the added effect when ‘men may react with injustice and anger in the form of anti-feminist campaigns if they feel unfairly blamed for the actions of others’ (Boyko, Wathen & Kothari, 2017) and it has the opposite effect when the message is not getting through.

    I’d like to see a more nuanced approach when it comes to Family and Domestic Violence communications. One that is far more inclusive and less gender focussed and basing it around healthy relationships and respect. I went looking for some stats on LGBTIQ domestic violence and did come across this resource from Child Family Community Australia which correlated with your findings of the way domestic violence is treated in the LGBTIQ community.

    There is so much more that we as a society can do better when it comes to hetero-normative language.

    Would you consider sending your paper to White Ribbon?



    Intimate partner violence in lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex and queer communities: Key issues | Child Family Community Australia. (n.d.). Retrieved May 14, 2021, from

    Boyko, J. A., Wathen, C. N., & Kothari, A. (2017). Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages. BMC Women’s Health, 17(1), 1–4.

    1. Hi Michelle!

      Thank you for your comments and findings I found them very useful! I personally never thought of sending my paper into the White Ribbon foundation because I would just think it would be disregarded, but after reading all these comments about how it has given educational value to some it has inspired me to possible send it through!

      Thank you

  17. Hi Tamlyn

    This is a very insightful paper!!

    Your identification of the only narrative of domestic violence being perpetrated by a man and a woman being the victim is a very topical issue, and it’s also extremely interesting! There seems to be a stigma that there people who identify as LGTBQ+ are only associated with a certain set of issues such as discrimination and lack of acknowledgement, with issues such as domestic violence as not being considered an LGTBQ+ issue.

    How do you think society can combat this issue to be more inclusive and recognise that domestic violence is also an issue that affects the LGBTQ+ community? E.g. creating more awareness through more advocacy groups or creating a new social media movement etc.?

    Well done on such a good paper!!

    1. Hi Lauren!

      I believe the first step is for already existing domestic violence organisations such as White Ribbon and AWAVA to start creating conversation and creating educational information for people interacting with their socials. On going conversation is what develops familiarity, so that is a good starting point, then after that I believe it would helpful for survivors to speak their truth and possible start a hash tag movement to encourage others to speak up and much like the #MeToo encourage change and knowledge around the issue.

  18. Hi Tamlyn,

    This is such an interesting topic to discuss and definitely very insightful and educational. I have to admit when I think of domestic abuse my mind does go towards a cis heterosexual relationships first. So first and foremost thank you for educating me and making me more aware on such an important topic.

    I definitely agree with the arguments that you have made, not much has been said or revealed about non- cis heterosexual relationships when it comes to domestic abuse. Do you think White Ribbon will be more likely to include more LGBTQ+ content, or do would it be better for a whole new organisation to be formed dedicated to the LGBTQ+ community?

    Interested to hear your thoughts on which one would be more effective.

    1. Hi Terina!

      Thank you for your kind words, I do believe organisations such as White Ribbon will start to include more informative information for the LGBTQ+ community. You can already see it on their Twitter as they are incorporating statistics about it. So I think if White Ribbon were to start including the queer community than it will encourage seperate organisations to be developed.

  19. Hey Tamlyn,

    Very interesting read, as I don’t really know or have been exposed to much of the LGBTQ+ community or resource, so this was a very insightful yet informative piece.

    It’s definitely evident and clear to see that there aren’t as many support groups/communities surrounding the domestic violence in LGBTQ+ communities, when comparing to heterosexual relationships/people.

    My question for you is, since that LGBTQ+ people and marriage have recently been legalised and slowly being completely normalised, do you think in the next few years there will be activist groups or organisations that will start a support foundation that include the LGBTQ+ community in domestic violence?

    1. Hi Allan!

      Yes 100%! social media is always developing and evolving, so I do believe that as society become more aware and educated organisations for specific groups will start developing. It is much like the evolution of domestic violence organisations it self, as they were never around in the 1950 because it was never talking about, but now there are so many groups and help lines. It is just a matter of time before society included communities such as the LGBTQ+.

  20. Hi Tamlyn,

    A great topic to discuss, Looking from the outside the LGBTQ+ community is seen as such a happy and loving community which seems like a problem free community, which of course it is not problem free. I feel as though the world in general and Australia to an extent are getting better and better in raising awareness about the LGBTQ+ community and educating more and more people and businesses on the community however something like domestic violence which has been important campaigns in previous years in Australia with the “Violence Against Women, Australia says No” campaign has seemingly been an issue which has not been covered enough.

    With that being said and your comments on White Ribbon, do you believe that organisations such as White Ribbon should partner with a potentially LGBTQ+ Domestic Violence organisation as they are seemingly not talking about it enough or should White Ribbon be more do more to include the LGBTQ+ community in their organisation?


    1. Hi William!

      Thank you for reading my paper, and I agree that Australia is probably one of the most woke countries regarding LGBTQ+, like most things you can never stop educating yourself on a topic that is unfamiliar to you its why social media is so important as it can be a platform for voice and education for people.

      In regards to your question unfortunately there are little to no organisations specifically looking at LGBTQ+ domestic violence, so I think that White Ribbon should create their on section for this topic and investigate more survival stories and helpful solutions to promote on their Facebook, Instagram and Website so it reaches as many people as possible. The Australian Government website Health and Well being organisation have actually got an informative page specifically about LGBTQ+ violence,
      here is the link if you wish to read, but I think as a starting point White Ribbon should start off with a page like this to encourage survivors to feel safe and heard.

      Thank you!

  21. This is such an important topic to talk about Tamlyn, thank you for sharing. I only really see discussions surrounding queer abuse victims on Twitter, where I mainly follow fellow queer people. The problem is that we’re the only ones talking about it. We need cisgender, heterosexual people on our side, standing with us and uplifting our voices. I feel it is so common for people to overlook any abuse dynamic that falls outside of the “cis, het, male perpetrator/cis, het, female victim” abuse dynamic. In reality, abusive situations can involve people of any gender or sexuality, and every victim’s voice should matter. Papers like this act as a means of kickstarting vital conversations and exposing more people to the realities faced by queer abuse survivors. Thank you for sharing!

    1. Hi Silas!

      I’m really glad you enjoyed my paper and share my passion on the topic. I always knew this was a problem and being able to research and write about gave me more motivation to voice this issue, and it’s come to my attention that a lot people did not understand how common and problematic it is. So I find it very encouraging when I see comments like this, thank you so much.

  22. Hi Tamlyn,
    What an amazing topic to write about! I think this needs to be spoken about more today as it is extremely necessary and prevalent in our society today.
    I agree with the arguments you’ve made and as you’ve mentioned, there are a variety of support groups for different unjust causes, however, the support groups for the LGTBQ+ community who have adhered to sexual abuse are extremely limited which is unjust. Movements such as the #metoo focus on women who have faced abused, giving women a voice and the power to express and voice their experiences in order to raise awareness on such causes in order to eradicate this in the future. However, there have been no movements for the LGTBQ+ community in the past. With that being said, I personally think that this topic is being given more exposure through platforms such as Twitter, and with the help of influencers online, these communities are being given a voice (the magnitude of exposure given to the communities are not as high as other communities but I believe it’s getting there).
    I also think people need to be educated on the LGTBQ+ and realize that they also deserve to be given a voice because they are exactly the same as us and there’s no reason for them not to get recognition on the injustices they’ve had to incur.

    1. Hi Saranya,

      Thank you for reading my paper and love the comments you have made, I agree that as a society we are being exposed to more information regarding the LGTBQ+ community and the issue they face. I think in regards to LGTBQ+ domestic it comes with its own unique issues such as “Outing” or threatening to reveal one partner’s sexual orientation/gender identity may be used as a tool of abuse in violent relationships and may also be a barrier that reduces the likelihood of help-seeking for the abuse. Prior experiences of physical or psychological trauma, such as bullying and hate crime, may make LGBTQ victims of domestic violence less likely to see the help. This is why it is so important to start educating and advocating because even though it is the same, it also comes with its own issues and need to make sure these victims feel heard and understood.


  23. Hey Tamlyn,

    I hope all is well

    What a great topic to uncover and elaborate on! I wholeheartedly agree with the points you mentioned within your conference paper. Whilst there are projects to help those in abusive relations and survivors of domestic abuse, there is little or no representation online regarding LGBTQ + community who have received decades of abuse. Due to such movements as the #Metoo movement and #Notallmen revolution being sparked in societies the level of oppression of women has been lifted significantly allowing victims to publicly speak out against their abusers and demonstrate the power of using their voice. Whereas as it is crucial that everyone is free to speak their mind, I agree with you when you state that there has been no recognition of the LGBTQ+ community in domestic violence, I believe if employed correctly a hashtag adopted on social media networking sites will help those members have the voice and platform to voice the domestic violence that they have received from just being themselves.

    What are your personal opinions on a hashtag being adopted purely for the LGBTQ+ community in order to spark the conversation of domestic violence that occurs in non-binary and homogeneous relationships?

    Many thanks

    1. Hi Che- Anne!

      Thank you for your comments it means a lot! In regards to hash tagging I believe it is a great use of affordance to spread awareness and reach as many people as possible. As we all know as marketing/ communication students the use of hashtags can be very powerful, the only hashtag that is used on Twitter regarding LGBTQ+ domestic violence is simply the #LGBTQdomesticviolence and it is only used 15% through out Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. I believe as a society we need to begin to look at creating more prominent social media spaces for victims in LGBTQ+ communities, before we create hashtags, as hashtags would not be used if people did not understand or acknowledge that it is a problem first.

      Thank you

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